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Lessons from the Great Hanshin Earthquake

Copyright(C) Hyogo Research Center for Quake Restoraion.
Edited by SHIOZAKI Yoshimitsu, NISHIKAWA Eiichi, DEGUCHI Toshikazu
Translated by WATANABE Reiko
First published in 17 January 2005 by Creates-Kamogawa Publishers

CONTENTS

PREFACE
  1. DEVASTATING DISASTER DAMAGE -- OUTLINES AND FEATURES
    1. A High-Tech Contemporary City: A City with Great Damages in an Earthquake
  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GROUND AND DAMAGE
    1. Residential Districts on the Rokko Mountain Slopes in Danger of Slope Failure
    2. Shallow Water Table and Soft Alluvial Clay -- Importance of Research and Announcement
    3. Artificial Valley Fills -- Damage of the Artificial Landform
  3. DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT
    1. Problem in the Emergency Evacuation System
    2. Lifeline Damage Reduction
    3. Control over Fires in the Inner City
  4. REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE
    1. Kodokushi -- Solitary Death
    2. Adequacy of Evacuation to Outside Hyogo Prefecture
    3. Infrastructure-Oriented Reconstruction
    4. Good and Bad Sides of Public Subsidy for Demolition
    5. Suits Claiming for Payment of Fire Insurance and Fire Mutual Aid
    6. Sharing Daily Life Information
    7. Support for Medical Patients and Public Aid for Private Medical Facilities
    8. Activities to Preserve the Historical Heritage in the Quake-Hit Area
  5. TRANSPORTATION
    1. Reconstruction of the Hanshin Expressway -- Destruction of Evidence
    2. Anti-Earthquake Measures for the Shinkansen (Bullet Train)
  6. IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
    1. Impact on the Environment and Waste after the Earthquake
    2. Geo-Pollution by Tetrachloroethylene
  7. EVACUATION, TEMPORARY HOUSING AND RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING
    1. Evacuation Center -- Better Small-Sized than Large-Sized
    2. Local Communities Destroyed by Temporary Housing Policy
    3. How Comfortable was the Temporary Housing?
    4. Tragedy Caused by the Bureaucratic Administration
    5. Little Choice in Housing Reconstruction Measures
    6. Significance of Community
  8. URBAN PLANNING AND MACHIZUKURI
    1. Urban Planning Projects Forcibly Decided
    2. Congested Residential Urban District Improvement Project
    3. Large-Scale Redevelopment Reconstruction Projects
    4. Machizukuri (Community Development) with Genuine Residents' Participation
    5. Community-Based Disaster Prevention Planning
    6. Community-Led Disaster Risk Management Planning and Practice
  9. HOUSING WITH SAFETY
    1. Collapsed Wooden Structure Housing
    2. Buildings Should Not Collapse or Burn
    3. Condominiums -- Repair Rather than Demolition and Rebuilding
    4. High-Rises and Super High-Rises, Inadequate for Dwelling
    5. Earthquake-Resistance
  10. PUBLIC AID AND FINANCES OF RECONSTRUCTION
    1. Actual Damage Much Bigger than the Announced Amount
    2. Public Aid for Individuals
    3. Heavy Burden of Loans Caused by the Great Hanshin Earthquake
    4. Finances of Restoration and Reconstruction
    5. The Delay in Distributing 180 Billion yen in Donations
  11. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES AND MAJOR ENTERPRISES
    1. Rebuilding of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
    2. Special Procurements Enjoyed Only by Major Enterprises

SHIOZAKI Yoshimitsu is currently a professor at the Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering of Kobe University. His major studies are in the field of urban planning and housing policy. He was a graduate from Kyoto University (MA and Dr of Engg.). He is now serving as a senior board member of Hyogo Research Center for Quake Restoration. He has made a few publications about the restoration programs that have been taken after the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995.

NISHIKAWA Eiichi is currently a professor emeritus of Kobe Maritime University. He was a graduate of Osaka University (MA and Dr of Engg.). He is now serving as a senior board member of Hyogo Research Center for Quake Restoration. He is a co-author of Sustainable Development.

DEGUCHI Toshikazu is the Executive Director of the Hyogo Research Center for Quake Restoration. He was a graduate of Kansai University. He was formerly a public school teacher and is currently a lecturer in both Ristumeikan University and Hannan University. He is an author of Study on Human Rights Education.

Hyogo Research Center for Quake Restoration is a non-profit organization founded in 1995 at Kobe, immediately after the Great Hanshin Earthquake in Japan with the objective of providing support to the local people in their attempts to recover their lives. This organization has been conducting many surveys, and studies as well as policy proposals and symposiums throughout these ten years in their search to promote a safer and better living environment for the future.

WATANABE Reiko is an interpreter, translator, and currently instructor at Congress Institute. She graduated from Osaka University of Arts and completed the postgraduate course at the Royal Academy of Music, London, majoring in flute, and then attended interpreter training schools. She has been involved in post-disaster restoration-related activities since 1995, when her house collapsed in the disaster.

The "Lessons from the Great Hanshin Earthquake" is a translation of selections from "Daishinnsai Hyaku no Kyokun (100 Lessons from the Great Hanshin Earthquake)", written by over 50 scholars, citizens and activists who have been involved in the process of post-disaster reconstruction after the great earthquake.
Many thanks to all the people who supported this project in various ways -- especially to Mr. HIRATA Yasushi, to Ms. ICHIHARA Hidemi, to Mr. MACDONALD Darryl. The preface was translated by Ms. HORITA Yumiko, Ms. Foong Sau Ling and Mr. Timothy Hammer. Also many thanks to Mr. ISHIZAWA Haruhiko from Creates-Kamogawa, the publisher.